A sofer, sopher, sofer SeTaM, or sofer ST" M (Heb: "scribe",; plural of sofer is soferim; female: soferet) is a Jewish scribe that can record sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls), tefillin (phylacteries), and mezuzot (ST" M,, is an acronym of these three terms), of the 5 Megillot and also various other religious writings.
Besides sifrei Torah, tefillin, and also mezuzot, scribes are essential to write the 5 Megillot (scrolls of the Song of Tunes, Book of Ruth, Publication of Esther, Ecclesiastes, and also Publication of Lamentations), Nevi'im (the books of the prophets, made use of for reading the haftarah), and also for, separation records. Likewise, lots of scribes function as calligrapherswriting useful papers such as "marriage contracts", or decorative and also imaginative performances of spiritual messages, which do not call for any kind of scribal credentials, as well as to which the rules on text as well as parchment specs do not apply.
In the Torah's 613 commandments, the 2nd to last is that every Jew must compose a sefer Torah in his life time (Deuteronomy 31:19). A sofer should be religiously watchful, of great personality, and experienced about the regulations concerning sofrut. It is a common false impression that a person needs to be a rabbi in order to come to be a sofer, which is not required by Jewish regulation.
The hardest part regarding finding out to be a sofer is not the calligraphy, yet, rather, remembering the countless legislations that apply to sifrei Torah, tefillin, mezuzot, as well as all the other texts that are composed on parchment. Some individuals who want to become routine scribes learn at the Vaad Mishmereth STaM, with the alternative of getting a certification.
It lies in Jerusalem as well as Bnei Brak in Israel, along with in Brooklyn, New York, United States.) Qualification of this type is not a halachic demand, neither does it necessarily ensure the quality of a particular sofer's job. This process does nevertheless ensure that a licensed sofer has actually obtained the proper education and learning and also is a recognized expert in the area of sofrut.
Hilchot Tzitzit, Mishnat Hasofer, Mishnat Sofrim, Likkut Sifrey, Shulchan Aruch HaRav. Stam. A PDF copy of guide Yalkut Sta" m is readily available below. Forming the basis for the conversation of females ending up being soferim, Talmud Gittin 45b states, "Sifrei Torah, tefillin as well as mezuzot written by a heretic, a star-worshipper, a servant, a woman, a minor, a Cuthean, or an apostate Jew, are unfit for routine usage." The judgments on mezuzot as well as tefillin are practically undisputed amongst those that hold to the Talmud.
Nevertheless, today, essentially all Orthodox (both Modern and also Ultra) authorities dispute the idea that a female is allowed to write a sefer Torah. Yet, women are allowed to inscribe Ketubot (marital relationship agreements), STaM not meant for routine usage, and also various other writings of sofrut past easy STaM. In 2003, Canadian Aviel Barclay ended up being the world's first well-known generally qualified female sofer.
In 2007 Jen Taylor Friedman, a British lady, ended up being the initial woman sofer to scribe a sefer Torah. In 2010, the initial sefer Torah scribed by a team of six women (from Brazil, Canada, Israel, and the USA) was finished; this was referred to as the Female's Torah Project. Ever since, various other ladies have created Torah scrolls.
Besides Torah scrolls, tefillin, and mezuzot, scribes are also needed for the writing of the 5 Megillot (scrolls of the Song of Tracks, Publication of Ruth, Publication of Esther, Ecclesiastes, and also Book of Lamentations) as well as Nevi'im (guides of the prophets, used for reviewing the haftarah), and for (divorce documents).
This was advertised in 19th-century Jerusalem by Rabbi Shemuel Shelomo Boyarski. The very first four letters of the Hebrew alphabet as they would certainly be composed scribally (a digital approximation) There are numerous rules worrying the correct formation of letters that should be stuck to if a composed message is to be considered consistently valid.
Generally, regarding sifrei Torah, none of these teams would think about that these differences would provide a Torah posul (ritually unsuited or invalid). The documents should be composed on appropriately prepared parchment or vellum called klaf. Several scribes also work as calligrapherswriting functional files like ketubot, or decorative and artistic renditions of religious textswhich do not call for any type of scribal certifications, and to which the guidelines on text and also parchment requirements do not use.
Sofer.co.uk. Gotten 2015-05-17. https://web.archive.org/web/20091019133505/http://www.geniza.net/ritual/women.shtml. Archived from the original on October 19, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2016. Tur, Orah Hayyim 271 Alice Lowenstein (2005-06-03). " A Female Scribe's Conducting Effort". Forward.com. Retrieved 2015-05-17. " Simchat Torah with a Soferet's Torah Jewish Women's Archive". Jwablog.jwa.org. 2006-10-13. Obtained 2015-05-17. Leah Hochbaum Rosner (2007-09-12). " As New Year Dawns, Jewish Women Mark Milestones".
Fetched 2015-05-17. Fishkoff, Sue (2010-10-15). קלף למזוזה https://www.minhastam.com/. " Women's Torah devoted in Seattle". Jta.org. Recovered 2015-05-17. " Julie Seltzer, a female Torah scribe from San Francisco, added to the initial Torah scroll to be composed by a group of females". Jweekly.com. 2010-10-21. Obtained 2015-05-17. " The CJM the Contemporary Jewish Museum". Archived from the original on April 8, 2011.
" A Torah Scribe Presses the Parchment Ceiling". Obtained 2015-05-17. " CJM to commemorate end of groundbreaking Torah task". Jweekly.com. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2015-05-17. Spiro, Amy. " Torah, she created - Jewish World". Jpost.com. Gotten 2015-05-17. " Archived duplicate". Archived from the initial on April 14, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2011. CS1 maint: archived duplicate as title (web link) Jeff Kunerth (2014-08-23).
( Image: Chabad of Binghamton/Bentzi Sasson) A (Hebrew for "scribe") is the particularly trained craftsman that composes the holy texts onto parchment making use of the conventional type of Hebrew calligraphy. Along with composing, the sofer may invest significant time checking existing texts to make certain that they were effectively made as well as have not been harmed with time.
Furthermore, a sofer may compose Megillah scrolls to be utilized on Purim, papers to be made use of in Jewish divorce as well as various other specialized Judaica products. Learn more concerning Jewish calligraphy here. Every one of the spiritual products that the scribe produces are created on klaf, specially prepared parchment from a kosher pet.